Perhaps more than any other area of HCI, design research faces an identity crisis. While some researchers extend human-centered design (turning cycles of observation, ideation, prototyping, and testing into design recommendations and guidelines), other researchers favor studies of design (empirical studies of design processes). Still others offer a kind of design meta-analysis, defining and characterizing modes of design research. As early as Christopher Frayling's discussion of research in art and design , concerns for generalizable knowledge have pervaded design research. Whether to legitimate design in the academy or to inform design pedagogy, such connections between theory and practice have…
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