Let's begin our journey in the 21st century by thinking about metaphors in user interfaces. I have defined them as the essential concepts in computer-mediated communication that substitute for the underlying code and terminology of operating systems, applications, and data. Instead, concepts are communicated through words, images, sounds, and even tactile form . An example familiar to most computer users is the desktop metaphor that substitutes a screen depicting something like a desktop covered with documents and folders for the underlying realities of data, functions, and how users manipulate them. In the disciplines of semiotics and rhetoric, this communication…
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