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VI.6 Nov.-Dec. 1999
Page: 84
Digital Citation

Reference guide

Matilda Blyth, Peter Cuyvers, Peter Schouten, Bernike Pasveer

back to top  Family and New Media

Gender and Computer Games
The authors combine their research on children's narrative to look at kids as consumers and users of new media. This is one of the few analyses of the construction of gendered stereotypes in computer games.
Justine Cassell and Henry Jenkins. From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and Computer Games. MIT Press, 1998.

Growing Up Digital
The first generation to "grow up digital" has arrived—the N-generation. By hyping the phenomenon Tapscott shows how this new generation plays, thinks, and learns, changing social interaction as we currently understand it.
Don Tapscott. Growing up Digital: The Rise of the Net Generation. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1997.

Hertzian Tales
This book looks at how the design of electronic products has been separated from the realm of culture. Dunne suggests that designers should innovate within a broader context of critical thinking on technology's aesthetic role in everyday life.
Anthony Dunne. Hertzian Tales. Royal College of Art Computer Related Design Research, 1999.

Identity and Internet
Using her psychoanalytical insight, Sherry Turkle tests the boundaries between computers and people. She closely observed the lives of computer users in chat rooms to explore their ability to assume multiple identities.
Sherry Turkle. Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. Touchstone Press, 1997 <>

Information Technology and Society
By looking at major issues as diverse as gender, work, and learning, the authors offer an overview of the social, political, and technological implications of the information revolution.
N. Heap, R. Thomas, et al. Information Technology and Society. Sage Publications, 1994.

Older People and Communication Technology
The Presence project researched how communication technology can enhance the activity and presence of older people in local communities. The book contains design concepts and prototypes, and a comprehensive list of user research methods.
Esther de Charon de Saint Germain and Kay Hofmeester, (eds.). Presence. The Netherlands Design Institute, 1999 <>

Technology in the Home
Key theorists look at the junction between consumption, home, and new technology. At its core is a concern with the complex set of relationships that define the place of the domestic in the modern world, mediated by consumption and technology.
Roger Silverstone, Eric Hirsch. and Marilyn Strathern (eds.). Consuming Technologies: Media and Information in Domestic Spaces. Routledge, 1994.

Starting from the common belief that technology is running away from us, this book looks at why we often feel more like its slaves than its masters.
Michelle Weil and Larry Rosen. Technostress: Coping with Technology @WORK @HOME @PLAY. John Wiley & Sons, 1997 <>

Television and Everyday Life
This book explores the enigma of television, showing how it has become part of our common discourse and the fabric of our everyday lives.
Roger Silverstone. Television and Everyday Life. Routledge, 1994.

The Media Equation
Reeves and Nass show how users give the same responses whether they are relating to technology or other people: they treat new media politely, give technologies personalities and get annoyed when they invade their body space.
Byron Reeves and Clifford Nass. The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television and New Media Like Real People and Places. Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Youth Culture in the Age of Multimedia
Another perspective on cyberkids: are they the new cultural producers or digital junkies glued to computer screens? This book cuts through the rhetoric using empirical work by a variety of researchers.
Julian Sefton-Green (ed.). Digital Diversions: Youth Culture in the Age of Multimedia. UCL Press, 1997.

Family Life in the Digital Home
Conducted within British Telecom's human factors department, this research illustrates their attempt to build an unprecedented and unparalleled understanding of how and why people purchase and adapt to communication technologies.
B. Anderson, A. McWilliam, et al. Family Life in the Digital Home: Domestic Telecommunications at the End of the 20th Century. BT Technology Journal 17, 1 (January 1999), p. 85.

This collaboration focuses on children's use of computer-mediated communication, and how it fits into their relationships with their family and friends.
Cyberkids: Children's Social Networks, "Virtual Communities" and On-line Space, Universities of Sheffield and Loughborough, <>

Young People New Media
Cutting through the moral panic surrounding children's use of computer games and digital TV, this research report concentrates on understanding the changing media environment of the home.
Sonia Livingstone and Moira Bovill. Young People New Media, a London School of Economics and Political Science report, available at <>

Human Values, Science, and Technology
This has been an important journal for more than 20 years, providing a forum for academics to look at the development and dynamics of science and technology, while concentrating on human interaction.
Science, Technology and Human Values, Sage Publications <>

Information, Communication and Society
An exciting international journal, Information, Communication and Society looks at empirical and theoretical perspectives on the information age. It emphasizes the social, political, and economic factors that shape the diffusion of communication technology in society.
Information, Communication and Society. Routledge journal <>

New Media and Society
By looking at new media development in political and historical development, this new journal—launched in April 1999—takes part in critical discussion about the scale, speed, and impact of new media development.
New Media and Society, Sage Publications, <>

Personal Technologies
With a selection of editors from the University of the West of England, Hewlett Packard Laboratories, and MIT Media Laboratory, this journal is determined to cause a stir with designers, social scientists, and technologists.
Personal Technologies, Springer-Verlag London, <>

"The television has become part of the fabric of our daily lives"

Web Site
Doors of Perception
The proceedings of the 5 Doors of Perception conferences are available only on the Web site. Organized by the Netherlands Design Institute, Doors of Perception seeks answers to the question: what are the Internet, information technology, and multimedia for?
Doors of Perception, <>

Web site
Two digital artists revisit both the landscape and the domestic life of their childhood homes, gently subverting the familiar language of home video through the Internet.
Homespun, <>

Web Site
Media Links
Cutting through the irrelevant sites that search engines bring you, this Web site has links to all the most important cultural studies and social science sites dealing with new media and technology.
Media Links, <>

Web site
Mi Casa Es Tu Casa
This Web site is an inspirational virtual reality artwork that allows children to play with physical toys. Through their play they create a constantly evolving digital world.
Mi Casa Es Tu Casa, <>

Web Site
Vision of the Future
This site resulted from a project by Philips Corporate Design and contains conceptual designs on life and technology in the near future. Many stimulating images introduce new product ideas on home life and kids' play.
Vision of the Future, <>

Center for Media Education
With an emphasis in the United States, the Center for Media Education is a non-profit organization dedicated to improving the quality of electronic media, especially for children and families.
Center for Media Education, Washington DC, <>

Center for Research into Innovation
The Center for Research into Innovation focuses on the ways in which new technologies are created, diffused, and used, emphasizing the role of culture as a key factor. More information about Matilda Blyth's research can be found on the Web site.
Center for Research into Innovation, Culture and Technology, Brunel University, Uxbridge, United Kingdom, <>
Matilda Blyth. The Social Construction of Consumer Need: or Why the Sociology of Consumption Might Benefit the Sociology of Technology. Brunel University, 1999.

Childnet International
This non-profit organization seeks to promote the interests of children in international communications by stimulating the use of new media and widening access to new technologies for those who are marginalized.
Childnet International, London, <>

Computer-Human Interaction

The annual conference of ACM's Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (CHI) brings together experts in the art and science of designing cutting-edge human-computer interaction. CHI also has a commitment to understanding human computer design for children.
ACM's Special Interest Group on Human-Computer Interaction (SIGCHI), CHI 99 <> and CHI 2000 <>

Families, Work, and Time
Helen Wilkinson, author of many reports on families, gender, work and time, recently returned to Demos, a progressive think tank and research institute, to continue her work after researching work and family issues in New York and Canada.
Demos, London, <>

Future Kids International
Future Kids was founded to equip children with the basic computer skills needed to excel in school and in the workplace. The group has a commitment to training teachers to ensure that they are equipped to impart technology skills to students.
Future Kids International, Los Angeles, <>

Human-Computer Interaction Lab
The Human-Computer Interaction Lab looks at initial technology designs, implementation issues, and evaluations of user performance. In particular Allison Druin researches children and new technology, looking at personal and collaborative story-telling projects.
Human-Computer Interaction Lab, University of Maryland, <> or < ~allisond/affiliations.html>

Royal College of Art
The Royal College of Art's computer-related-design research group draws together psychosocial design, critical design, and active media groups to create new media that take account of people's cultural desires as well as their practical needs.
Computer-Related-Design Research Group, Royal College of Art, London, <>

Tools to Think With
The Epistemology and Learning Group creates new "tools to think with" and explores how these tools can help bring about change in real-world settings. In particular Mitch Resnick thinks of kids as young engineers. He was involved in the development of Lego's programmable brick.
The Epistemology and Learning Group, MIT Media Lab, Cambridge MA, <>

Toys and Educational Media
The Nordic Center for Research on Toys and Educational Media aims to establish a foundation of multiple research on toys and educational media to increase progressive research on toys. Comprehensive reports in PDF-format are available from its Web site.
Nordic Center for Research on Toys and Educational Media, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden, < dep/ncflweb>

back to top  Family and Communication

Being the Parent You Want to Be
This popular book teaches anyone who works with or cares for children 12 time-tested skills that can transform adult-child relationships.
Gary Page. Being the Parent YOU Want to Be: 12 Communication Skills for Effective Parenting. Performance Learning Systems, 1999.

Communication in the Family
Arguing that modes of family functioning always include communication as a central enabling process, this book explores theoretical research on family communication across the social sciences.
Patricia Noller and Mary Anne Fitzpatrick. Communication in Family Relationships. Prentice Hall, 1992.

Explaining Family Interactions
Divided into three parts, this book shows how communication between family members changes over time, and explores the association between family structure and communication.
Mary Anne Fitzpatrick and Anita Vangelist (eds.). Explaining Family Interactions. Sage Publications, 1995.

Habits of Highly Effective Families
"What is effectiveness in a family?" asks Stephen Covey, a new-age business guru and leadership authority. He promptly answers with four words: "a beautiful family culture." Building this culture is the primary theme of his parenting guide.
Stephen Covey and Sandra Covey. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Families: Building a Beautiful Family-Culture in a Turbulent World.Golden Books, 1997.

Parents, Children and Communication
The authors of the various chapters bring a communications perspective to enduring problems of discipline, adolescent conflict, and physical child abuse. Together they present a theoretical framework for future research in parent–child interaction.
Thomas Socha and Glen Stamp (eds.). Parents, Children and Communication: Frontiers of Theory and Research. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995.

Surviving the Family

Psychologist and family therapist Robin Skynner and comedian John Cleese have joined forces and ideas to write a book on family processes and other social interactions. It combines profound insights with a highly engaging style.
John Cleese and Robin Skynner. Families and How to Survive Them. Hutchinson Children's Books, 1993.

The Art of Talking
Paul Swets observed that many people have difficulty with what he calls the art of communicating. He compiled this guide to the skills of listening and talking. Partners, friends, and colleagues will want to listen.
Paul Swets. The Art of Talking So That People Will Listen: Getting Through to Family, Friends, and Business Associates. Prentice Hall, 1992.

The Evolution of Language
Dunbar believes that language evolved among women.
Because, according to the book, women gossip more than men about other people, they strengthen the female–female relationships that underpin society.
Robin Dunbar. Grooming, Gossip and the Evolution of Language. Faber and Faber, 1997.

The Family in Changing Times
This book explores how family members can build satisfying relationships in changing times by modifying their communication behavior. It identifies aspects of communication that are special to the various relationships we label "family."
Judy Pearson. Communication in the Family: Seeking Satisfaction in Changing Times. Harper & Row, 1998.

The Overworked American
In the last 20 years, the average working American has seen his or her working hours increase by the equivalent of one month a year—and this spurt in working time has hit people in all industries and occupations.
Juliet Schor. The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure. Basic Books, 1993.

"Communication is a central enabling process for family functioning"

Communication Schemata
This empirical study shows correspondence between the communication characteristics of interactions between parents, and the parent-child interaction.
M. Fitzpatrick and L. Ritchie. Communication Schemata within the Family. Human Interaction Research 20, 3 (1994), pp. 275–301.

Talking About the Television
Children and parents were asked to choose TV programs together. Evaluation of their communication showed that "family ideologies" play paramount roles in the decision process. Surprisingly, children of less authoritarian families were more obedient.
M. Krcmar. Family Communication Patterns: Discourse, Behaviour and Child Television Viewing. Human Communication Research, 23, 2 (1996), pp. 251–227.

The Early Stages of Parenthood
Parents often tell children anecdotes of their own childhood. The themes of these stories change with age: As children grow older the focus tends to shift from solidarity to individual achievement.
B. Fiese. Family Stories in the Early Stages of Parenthood, Journal of Marriage and the Family 57, 3 (1995), pp. 763–770.

Family Issues
The Journal of Family Issues, published in the United Kingdom, has been shedding light on the social and institutional forces shaping today's families for nearly 20 years.
Journal of Family Issues. Center for the Study of Family Development, University of Dayton, Sage Publications <>

Marriage and the Family
Featuring original social science theory and research, statistical advances, and critical reviews, the Journal of Marriage and the Family covers all aspects of marriage, other close relationships, and family life.
Journal of Marriage and the Family, <http://www.ume.>

The Family Process
This American multidisciplinary journal publishes clinical research, training, and theoretical contributions in the broad area of family therapy. Over its 38 years of publication, the journal has become a major resource for mental health and social service professionals.
Family Process, Rochester <>

Family Databases
These explicitly macroscopic and internationally oriented institutions have very useful research databases.
Austrian Institute for Family Studies, <>
Australian Institute for Family Studies, <>

National Family Centers
The following organizations are the main national family information and research centers for politics and science in the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Russia, and the United States.
United Kingdom:
Family Policies Study Center, <>
German Youth Institution, Freibadstrasse 30, D-81543 Munich, Germany
National Women's Education Centre, Sugaya 728, Ranzan-machi, Hiki-gun, Saitama 355-02, Japan
Russian Family Research Institute, Ministry of Social Welfare of the Russian Federation, 103012, Moscow (ul. Nikolskaya 10/2), Russia
United States:
National Council on Family Relations, <>

Year of the Family
During the United Nations Year of the Family in 1994, research activities on family life were begun all around the world. The central information point is in New York.
United Nations Committee for the Family, Division for Social Policy and Development, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Room DC2-1370, Two United Nations Plaza, New York, New York, 10017 <>

back to top  Family and Images

Camera Lucida
Barthes contemplates a photograph of his mother as a child. He uses it to illustrate what he considers the most common use of photographic images—as an aid to thinking about the person in the photo and what that person means to you.
Roland Barthes. Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography. Fontanam, 1980.

Family Frames
A provocative exploration of photographic conventions for constructing family relationships and a discussion of artistic strategies for challenging those constructions, Family Frames is both a theoretical analysis and a passionate interrogation of photographs.
Marianne Hirsch. Family Frames: Photography, Narrative, and Postmemory. Harvard University Press, 1997.

Family Photographs
A classic study of the sociological significance, history, and uses of family photographs. According to the author, family photography is a window onto the human condition.
Julia Hirsch. Family Photographs: Content, Meaning, and Effect. Oxford University Press, 1981.

Family Secrets
Kuhn uses snapshots of her childhood to tease out the ways in which personal memory and childhood fantasy overlap and how both interleave with social and popular culture. She considers the family album as a cultural artifact.
Annette Kuhn. Family Secrets: Acts of Memory and Imagination. Virago, 1995.

Family Snaps
A valuable collection of articles on the significance of domestic photography. Topics include the consequences of changing technology for the image, questions of identity and memory, and photography as a means of exploring the self.
Jo Spence and Patricia Holland, eds. Family Snaps: The Meaning of Domestic Photography. Virago, 1991.

The possibility of visualizing family-members-to-be by ultrasonic imaging has considerable implications for our experience of the body, for the parents' sense of identity, and for cultural issues of life and death.
Barbara Duden. Disembodying Women. Harvard University Press, 1993.

Fun with Digital Imaging
All the tricks you need to produce dazzling digital images on your own computer are in this book. From family trees to garden plans, this all-in-one reference and activity book delivers lots of ideas to spark the creativity of family members.
Lisa Price and Jonathan Price. Fun with Digital Imaging: The Official Hewlett-Packard Guide. IDG Books Worldwide, 1999.

Good Looking
Art historian Stafford sets out to develop a positive visual praxis by demonstrating the historical virtues of visualization for the emergent era of computerism and the resulting explosive growth of optical information.
Barbara Stafford. Good Looking: Essays on the Virtue of Images. The MIT Press, 1997.

Putting Myself in the Picture
An impressive book documenting Jo Spence's career, which ranges from street photographer to well-known critic of the official treatment of cancer patients. A visual autobiography that reveals photography as part of her ideas, politics, and history.
Jo Spence. Putting Myself in the Picture: a Political, Personal, and Photographic Autobiography. Camden Press, 1986.

Remediation is the capability of a new medium to reuse the old (e.g., to show a family photograph on the Web). Remediation is described as a "defining characteristic of the new digital media" and is crucial to understanding the new and the old photography.
J. Bolter and R. Grusin. Remediation: Understanding New Media. MIT Press, 1999.

So We Can Remember
This book analyzes the album of one nuclear family. Seventy-one photographs are described in short excerpts from interviews with family members; these texts are analyzed for what they reveal about family photography.
Pauline Greenhill. So We Can Remember: Showing Family Photographs. Canadian Center for Folk Cultural Studies, Ottawa, Paper No. 36, 1981.

"The way we see things is affected by what we know or what we believe"

The Burden of Representation
John Tagg explores the history of the institutional use of photography as documentation and evidence, for example on passports. He rejects the idea of photography as a record of reality as well as the notion of a documentary tradition.
John Tagg. The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories. University of Minnesota Press, 1988.

The Familial Gaze
A range of influential writers shed light on family pictures from various angles—the personal, political, historical and aesthetic implications of family photographs and photography, and their power to shape our personal and our cultural memories.
Marianne Hirsch, (ed.). The Familial Gaze. University Press of New England, 1998.

The Virtues of Photography
A postmodern and feminist analysis of 19th- and 20th- century photography that raises crucial questions about photography's complicity in the reproduction of oppressive historical formations.
Abigail Solomon-Godeau. Photography at the Dock : Essays on Photographic History, Institution, and Practices. University of Minnesota Press, 1991.

Thinking Through Photography
By looking at what photographs do to us, instead of what we do with them, the author discusses the "indexicality problem"—is there an objective connection between a photograph and what it is a photograph of?
Patrick Maynard. The Engine of Visualization: Thinking Through Photography. Cornell University Press, 1997.

Visual Sociology
Luc Pauwels looks at the specifics and the potential of camera-generated images as data (not merely illustration) for anthropological and sociological research.
Luc Pauwels. De Verbeelde Samenleving: Camera, Kennisverwerving en Communicatie. Zelfkant, 1996.

Ways of Seeing
The way we see things is affected by what we know or what we believe. In his classic work, Berger discusses this issue by analyzing the composition of paintings and photographs, from a personal and a historical point of view.
John Berger. Ways of Seeing. Penguin Books, 1990.

How Sweet It Is to Scan
Patricia Holland gives a historical overview of the domestic uses of photography as a medium to record individual lives and fantasies. She analyzes the strategies followed by Kodak to create a mass market for photography.
Patricia Holland. How Sweet it Is to Scan: Personal Photographs and Popular Photography.
In Photography: a Critical Introduction (Liz Wells, ed.). Routledge, 1995. pp. 103–150.

Photography in the Age of Electronic Imaging

Lister discusses our fears about photography's losing its truth-telling ability in an age of digital imaging. He considers whether digital image production is too reliant on the technologies and visual conventions of existing media.
Martin Lister. Photography in the Age of Electronic Imaging.
In Photography: A Critical Introduction (Liz Wells, ed.). Routledge, 1997, pp. 249–291.

Web Site
Collected Visions
Drawing upon photographs collected from more than 300 people, Collected Visions examines how family photographs shape our memories. It explores the possibilities of the Web both as a medium and as an archive of family photographs.
Collected Visions, <>

Web Site
My Family
Here families can create their own private Web sites and share family news, photos, calendar events, and more. Its purpose is to help families use technology to bridge the distance between their members.
MyFamily, <>

Web Site
Photographs and Birth Cards
A display of photographs and announcements of newly born babies submitted and annotated by their parents. Provides many links to private family albums.
Photographs and Birth Cards, <>

Web Site
Photomatic describes the finding of an old photo album. The site presents several "old" photographs with stories behind them as written down by the owner of the album. A fascinating, time-consuming lifesaver designed by Douglas Gayeton.
Photomatic, <>

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